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In The name of Allah,The Most Merciful,The Most gracious

The Prophetic Household

Chapter 41,Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar)

  • Khadijah Bint Khuwailid: In Makkah — prior to Hijra — the Prophet’s household comprised him (Peace be upon him) and his wife Khadijah bint Khuwailid. He was twenty-five and she was forty when they got married. She was the first woman he married. She was the only wife he had till she died. He had sons and daughters with her. None of their sons lived long. They all died. Their daughters were Zainab, Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah.

Zainab was married to her maternal cousin Abu Al-‘As bin Al-Rabi‘ and that was before Al-Hijra. Ruqaiya and Umm Kulthum were both married to ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (May Allah be pleased with him) successively (i.e. he married one after the death of her sister). Fatimah was married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib; and that was in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The sons and daughters that Fatimah and ‘Ali had were Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum.

It is well-known that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) was exceptionally authorized to have more than four wives for various reasons. The wives he married were thirteen. Nine of them outlived him. Two died in his lifetime: Khadijah and the Mother of the poor (Umm Al-Masakeen) — Zainab bint Khuzaima, besides two others with whom he did not consummate his marriage.

  • Sawdah bint Zam‘a: He married her in Shawwal, in the tenth year of Prophethood, a few days after the death of Khadijah. Prior to that, she was married to a paternal cousin of hers called As-Sakran bin ‘Amr.
  • ‘Aishah bint Abu Bakr: He married her in the eleventh year of Prophethood, a year after his marriage to Sawdah, and two years and five months before Al-Hijra. She was six years old when he married her. However, he did not consummate the marriage with her till Shawwal seven months after Al-Hijra, and that was in Madinah. She was nine then. She was the only virgin he married, and the most beloved creature to him. As a woman she was the most learnèd woman in jurisprudence.
  • Hafsah bint ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab: She was Aiyim (i.e. husbandless). Her ex-husband was Khunais bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) married her in the third year of Al-Hijra.
  • Zainab bint Khuzaimah: She was from Bani Hilal bin ‘Amir bin Sa‘sa‘a. Was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakeen, because of her kindness and care towards them. She used to be the wife of ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was martyred at Uhud, was married to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in the fourth year of Al-Hijra, but she died two or three months after her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him).
  • Umm Salamah Hind bint Abi Omaiyah: She used to be the wife of Abu Salamah, who died in Jumada Al-Akhir, in the fourth year of Al-Hijra. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) married her in Shawwal of the same year.
  • Zainab bint Jahsh bin Riyab: She was from Bani Asad bin Khuzaimah and was the Messenger’s paternal cousin. She was married to Zaid bin Haritha — who was then considered son of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) . However, Zaid divorced her. Allâh sent down some Qur’ânic verses with this respect:

“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e., divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage.” [33:37]

About her, Allâh has sent down some verses of Al-Ahzab Chapter that discussed the adoption of children in detail — anyway we will discuss this later. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) married her in Dhul-Qa‘dah, the fifth year of Al-Hijra.

  • Juwairiyah bint Al-Harith: Al-Harith was the head of Bani Al-Mustaliq of Khuza‘ah. Juwairiyah was among the booty that fell to the Muslims from Bani Al-Mustaliq. She was a portion of Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas’ share. He made her a covenant to set her free at a certain time. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) accomplished the covenant and married her in Sha‘ban in the sixth year of Al-Hijra.
  • Umm Habibah: Ramlah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan. She was married to ‘Ubaidullah bin Jahsh. She migrated with him to Abyssinia (Ethiopia). When ‘Ubaidullah apostatized and became a Christian, she stoodfast to her religion and refused to convert. However ‘Ubaidullah died there in Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) dispatched ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damri with a letter to Negus, the king, asking him for Umm Habibah’s hand — that was in Muharram, in the seventh year of Al-Hijra. Negus agreed and sent her to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in the company of Sharhabeel her after that conquest in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.
  • Maimunah bint Al-Harith: The daughter of Al-Harith, and the sister of Umm Al-Fadl Lubabah bint Al-Harith. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) married her after the Compensatory ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage). That was in Dhul-Qa‘dah in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

Those were the eleven women that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had married and consummated marriage with them. He outlived two of them — Khadijah and Zainab, the Umm Al-Masakeen. Whereas the other nine wives outlived him.

The two wives that he did not consummate marriage with were, one from Bani Kilab and the other from Kindah and this was the one called Al-Jauniyah.

Besides these, he had two concubines. The first was Mariyah, the Coptic (an Egyptian Christian), a present gift from Al-Muqauqis, vicegerent of Egypt — she gave birth to his son Ibrâhim, who died in Madinah while still a little child, on the 28th or 29th of Shawwal in the year 10 A.H., i.e. 27th January, 632 A.D. The second one was Raihanah bint Zaid An-Nadriyah or Quraziyah, a captive from Bani Quraiza. Some people say she was one of his wives. However, Ibn Al-Qaiyim gives more weight to the first version. Abu ‘Ubaidah spoke of two more concubines, Jameelah, a captive, and another one, a bondwoman granted to him by Zainab bint Jahsh.

Whosoever meditates on the life of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him), will conceive that his marriage to this great number of women in the late years of his lifetime, after he had almost spent thirty years of his best days of youth sufficing himself to one old wife — Khadijah and later on to Sawdah, was in no way an overwhelming lustful desire to be satisfied through such a number of wives. These marriages were in fact motivated by aims and purposes much more glorious and greater than what normal marriages usually aim at.

The tendency of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) towards establishing a relationship by marriage with both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and his marriage to ‘Aishah and Hafsah — and getting his daughter Fatimah married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, and the marriage of his two daughters, Ruqaiyah and Umm Kulthum to ‘Uthman — indicate clearly that he aimed at confirming the relationship among the four men — whose sacrifices and great achievements in the cause of Islam are well-known.

Besides this, there was that tradition of the Arabs to honour the in-law relations. For them a son or a daughter-in-law was a means by which they sought the consolidation of relationship and affection with various phratries. Hostility and fights against alliances and affinities would bring an unforgettable shame, disgrace and degradation to them.

By marrying the Mothers of believers, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) wanted to demolish or break down the Arab tribes’ enmity to Islam and extinguish their intense hatred. Umm Salamah was from Bani Makhzum — the clan of Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Al-Waleed. Her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) produced good results. Khalid’s deliberately undecisive attitude at Uhud — for instance — was due to the Messenger’s marriage to Umm Salamah. Khalid went even further than that, in a short time he willingly became a keen obedient Muslim.

After the Messenger of Allâh’s marriage to Umm Habibah, Abu Sufyan, her father, did not encounter him with any sort of hostility. Similarly his marriage to Juwairiyah and Safiyah made the two tribes stop all sorts of provocation, aggression or hostility against Islam. Better still, Juwairiyah, herself, was one of the greatest sources of blessing to her own people. On the occasion of her marriage to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), his Companions set a hundred families of her people free. They said: “It is for their affinity with the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him).” No need to say what great good impression this gratitude had on everybody’s soul. One of the greatest motives of all is Allâh’s bidding his Prophet to educate and purify the souls of people who had known nothing whatsoever about courtesy, education and culture. He had to teach them to comply with the necessities of civilization and to contribute to the solidification and the establishment of a new Islamic society.

An essential fundamental rule of the Muslim society is to prohibit mixing of men and women. Providing direct education for women, though highly compelling, is impossible in the light of this Islamic norm. Therefore, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had to select some women of different ages and talents, and indoctrinate them systematically in order to educate she-bedouins and townswomen, old and young, and thus furnish them with the instruments of propagating the true faith. The Mothers of believers [i.e. wives of the Prophet (Peace be upon him)] were in such a convenient position that they could convey the state of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his affairs to people (men and women). Being educated and taught the teachings and rules of Islam, his wives, especially those who outlived him, played a very important role in conveying Prophetic traditions Ahadith to the Muslims. ‘Aishah, for instance, related a large number of the Prophet’s deeds and statements.

His marriage to his paternal cousin Zainab bint Jahsh was a peculiar case which aimed at eradicating a deeply rooted pre-Islamic tradition — i.e. the adoption of children. In Al-Jahiliyah the Arabs used to consider an adopted person exactly like a real son or daughter as far as rights and sanctities are concerned. That Jahiliyah tradition had been so deeply rooted in their hearts that it was not easy to remove or uproot it. This tradition in fact affronts the basic principles of Islam; especially those concerned with marriage, divorce and inheritance and some other cases, and brought about lots of corruptions and indecencies. Naturally Islam stands against such deeds, and attempts to remove them from the Islamic society.

For the eradication of this tradition, Allâh, the Exalted, bid His Messenger (Peace be upon him) to marry his cousin Zainab bint Jahsh, who was an ex-wife to Zaid. She was at variance with Zaid to an extent that he intended to divorce her — that was at the time when the Confederates (Al-Ahzab) were making an evil alliance against the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) and against the Muslims. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) feared that the hypocrites, the idolaters, and the Jews would make a propaganda out of it and try to influence some Muslims of weak hearts. That was why he urged Zaid not to divorce her, in order not to get involved into that trial.

Undoubtedly this hesitation and partiality were alien to the character of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). They did not apply to the power of determination and will with which he had been sent. Allâh, the Exalted, blamed him for that by saying:

“And (remember) when you said to him [Zaid bin Haritha (May Allah be pleased with him) — the freed slave of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) ] on whom Allâh has bestowed grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) ] have done favour (by manumitting him), ‘Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allâh.’ But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what Allâh has already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which Allâh will make manifest, you did fear the people [i.e. Muhammad (Peace be upon him) ] married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave] whereas Allâh had a better right that you should fear him.” [33:37]

Finally Zaid divorced Zainab and the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) married her at the time he laid siege to Bani Quraiza. That was after she had finished her Iddat (i.e. period during which a widow or a divorcee may not remarry). Allâh Himself had already ordained it, and so gave him no other alternative. Allâh had even started the marriage Himself by saying:

“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them).” [33:37]

And that was in order to break down the tradition of child adoption in practice after He had done it in words:

“Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just near Allâh.” [33:5]

“Muhammad (Peace be upon him) ] is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allâh, and the last (end) of the Prophets.” [33:40]

Lots of deeply-rooted traditions cannot be uprooted or demolished or even adjusted by mere words. They must be matched and associated with the action of the advocate of the Message himself.

This could be perceived through the deeds practised by the Muslims at Al-Hudaibiyah ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) during which ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ud Al-Thaqafi saw certain Muslims tend to pick up any expectoration that fell down from the Prophet. He also saw them race to the water of his ablution and they almost quarrelled for it. There were others who competed to pledge allegiance to death and some others pledged not to flee from (the battlefield). Among those people, were eminent Companions like ‘Umar and Abu Bak, who although dedicated all their lives to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and to the cause of Islam, but refused to carry out the Messenger’s ordres with respect to slaughtering sacrificial animals after the ratification of Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty, the thing that perturbed and caused the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to feel anxious. However, when Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) advised that he take the initiative and sacrifice his animals, his followers raced to follow his example; a clear evidence in support of the saying: Actions speak louder than words, in the process of exterminating a deeply-established tradition.

Hypocrites aroused a lot of suspicions and made a broad false propaganda against that marriage. Their acts and talks about that marriage had ill-effects on those Muslims whose Faith was still weak, particularly that Zainab was the fifth wife — and the Noble Qur’ân limited the number up to four only; Zaid was traditionally his son, and so a father marrying his son’s divorcee was a heinous sin in the eyes of the Arabians.

Al-Ahzab Surah was revealed to shed full light on the two issues, i.e. Islam does not recognize adoption of children, and the Prophet (Peace be upon him) is given (by Allâh) more freedom as regards the number of wives he can hold than other Muslims in order to achieve noble and honourable purposes.

However, the treatment of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) to his wives was of honourable, noble, and superb nature. His wives were on tops in respect of honour, satisfaction, patience, modesty, and service (that is to say the performance of housework and marriage duties). Although the Messenger’s house-life was hard and unbearable, none of his wives complained. Anas said about the Prophet’s life: “According to my knowledge, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) has never tasted a thin flattened loaf in all his lifetime, nor has he ever seen with his own eyes roasted mutton.”

‘Aishah said: “Over two months have elapsed — during which we have seen three crescents — and yet no fire has been kindled in the houses of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) (i.e. they did not cook food).” “What did you eat to sustain yourselves?” ‘Urwah asked. She said “The two blacks: dates and water”.

Lots of information about the hard life of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) were told.

In spite of these hardships, straits and adversity of life in the house of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), none of his wives uttered a word of complaint worthy of reproach — but once. This exception was required by human instinctive inclinations. However, it was not so important and consequently it did not require the decree of a legislative rule. Allâh has given them an opportunity to choose between two things, as clearly stated in the following verses:

“O Prophet [Muhammad (Peace be upon him) ]! Say to your wives: ‘If you desire the life of this world, and its glitter, — then come! I will make a provision for you and set you free in a handsome manner (divorce). But if you desire Allâh and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, then verily, Allâh has prepared for Al-Muhsinat (good doers) amongst you an enormous reward.’” [33:28,29]

They were so noble and honest that none of them preferred ‘the life of this world and its glitter’ to the abode in the Hereafter.

Although they were many in number, nothing of the dispute occurrences that normally happen among co-wives, took place in their houses. Very few cases could be the only exception; but they were quite normal. Allâh reproached them for that, so they ceased to do such a thing. This incident is mentioned in At-Tahreem Chapter:

“O Prophet! Why do you ban (for yourself) that which Allâh has made lawful to you …” [66:1] (to the end of the fifth verse).

Discussing polygamy — in my opinion — is not a necessity; since a person who is familiar with the Europeans, and indecent practices, sufferings, wickedness, their sorrows and distresses, the horrible crimes they commit in this respect as well as the trials, the disasters that they are involved in, and which emanate directly from their disregard of the principle of polygamy form a good reason (to justify the soundness of polygamy). The distorted picture of life in Europe with the ill-practices featuring it, could truthfully justify the existence and practice of polygamy. In this, there are Divine signs for all people possessed of lucid mind.


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In The name of Allah,The Most Merciful,The Most gracious

The Farewell Pilgrimage

Chapter 39,Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar)

After the accomplishment of the Call, the proclamation of the Message and the establishment of a new society on the basis of ‘There is no god but Allâh,’ and on Muhammad’s mission, a secret call up rose in the heart of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) telling him that his stay in the Lower World was about to terminate. That was clear in his talk to Mu‘adh whom he had dispatched to Yemen in the tenth year of Al-Hijra: “O, Mu‘adh! You may not see me after this current year. You may even pass by this very Mosque of mine and my tomb.” Upon hearing that Mu‘adh cried for fear that he would part with the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him).

Allâh’s care was so bounteous as to let the Prophet (Peace be upon him) see the fruits of his Call for the sake of which he suffered various sorts of trouble for over twenty years. Those twenty years had elapsed actively. He used to spend his last days meeting, at the outskirts of Makkah, members of tribes and their representatives who used to consult him and learn the laws and legislation of Islam from him, and in return he used to exact their testimony that he had delivered trust and communicated the Message and counseled the people.

The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) announced an intention to proceed with this blessed pilgrimage journey himself. Enormous crowds of people came to Madinah, all of whom seek the guidance and Imamate of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) in the pilgrimage (Al-Hajj). On a Saturday of the last four days of Dhul-Qa‘dah, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) started the departure preparations procedure. He combed his hair, applied some perfume, wore his garment, saddled his camel and set off in the afternoon. He arrived at Dhul-Hulaifa before the afternoon prayer. He performed two Rak‘a and spent the night there. When it was morning he said to his Companions:

“A comer, sent by my Lord, has called on me tonight and said: ‘Pray in this blessed valley and say: I intend ‘Umrah combined with pilgrimage (‘Umrah into Al-Hajj).

Before performing the noon prayer, he bathed for Ihram (ritual consecration), and ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) perfumed him on both his body and head with her hand with a Dharira (a plant) and with a perfume containing musk. The thick sticky layer of perfume could be seen among his parts of hair and beard. He left it unwashed, wore his loincloth and garment. He performed the noon prayer shortened, two Rak‘a. He proclaimed pilgrimage procedure associated with ‘Umrah at his prayer-place. He, then mounted his she-camel ‘Al-Qaswa’, and proclaimed: ‘There is no god but Allâh’. When he moved into the desert, he acclaimed the Name of Allâh.

He proceeded with his journey till he approached Makkah. He spent the night at Dhi Tuwa and entered Makkah after performing the dawn prayer. He had a bath on Sunday morning, the fourth of Dhul-Hijjah the tenth year of Al-Hijra. He spent eight days on the way, which was an average period. As soon as he entered Al-Haram Mosque he circumambulated Al-Ka‘bah and walked to and fro (Sa‘i) between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. He did not finish the Ihram (ritual consecration) because he was Qarin (i.e. intending ‘Umrah and Al-Hajj associated). He then took Al-Hadi (i.e. the sacrificial animals) in order to slaughter them. He camped on a high place of Makkah — Al-Hajun. As for circumambulation, he performed only that of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage circumambulation).

Those of his Companions who had no Hadi with them to sacrifice, were ordered to observe Ihram (i.e. the state of ritual consecration) into ‘Umrah (i.e. lesser pilgrimage), and circumambulate Al-Ka‘bah and stride ritually to and fro between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. After that they could relieve themselves from Ihram. They, however, showed reluctance to do what they had been told. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) said: ”Had I known beforehand what I knew afterward, I would not bring Hadi, and if I did not have Hadi, I would break Ihram. On hearing these words, his Companions obeyed the orders to the latter.

On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah — that is the Day of Tarwiyah, he left for Mina where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset, the evening and the dawn prayers. — i.e. five prayers. Then he stayed for a while till the sun rose up then he passed along till he reached ‘Arafah, where there was a tent built for him at Namirah. He sat inside till the sun went down. He ordered that Al-Qaswa’, his she-camel, should be prepared for him. They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down the valley where a hundred thousand and twenty-four or forty-four thousand people gathered round him. There he stood up and delivered the following speech:

“ O people! Listen to what I say. I do not know whether I will ever meet you at this place once again after this current year. It is unlawful for you to shed the blood of one another or take (unlawfully) the fortunes of one another. They are as unlawful, (Haram) as shedding blood on such a day as today and in such a month as this Haram month and in such a sanctified city as this sacred city (i.e. Makkah and the surrounding areas).”

“Behold! all practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood-revenge of the Days of Ignorance (pre-Islamic time) are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabi‘a bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sa‘d and whom Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, and I make a beginning by remitting the amount of interest which ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib has to receive. Verily, it is remitted entirely.”

“O people! Fear Allâh concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allâh and have made their persons lawful unto you by Words of Allâh! It is incumbent upon them to honour their conjugal rights and, not to commit acts of impropriety which, if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely. If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you, clothe and feed them suitably.”

“Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allâh and the Sunnah (Traditions) of His Messenger which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray.”

“O people, I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded by any nation. So I recommend you to worship your Lord, to pray the five prayers, to fast Ramadan and to offer the Zakat (poor-due) of your provision willingly. I recommend you to do the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of your Lord and to obey those who are in charge of you then you will be awarded to enter the Paradise of your Lord.”

“And if you were asked about me, what wanted you to say?”

They replied:

“We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged your ministry.”

He then raised his forefskywards and then moved it down towards people while saying:

“O Allâh, Bear witness.”

He said that phrase thrice.

The one who repeated the Prophet’s (Peace be upon him)statements loudly at ‘Arafat was Rabi‘a bin Omaiyah bin Khalaf.

As soon as the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had accomplished delivering the speech, the following Qur’ânic verse was revealed to him:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [5:3]

Upon hearing this verse ‘Umar cried. “What makes you cry?” He was asked.

His answer was: “Nothing succeeds perfection but imperfection.”

Bilal called for prayer after the speech, and then made the second call. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) performed both of the noon and the afternoon prayers separately, with no prayers in between. He then mounted his she-camel Al-Qaswa’, approached the location of the vigil, directed his face towards Al-Qiblah, kept on standing till sunset when the sky yellow colour vanished a bit and the disc of the sun disappeared. Osamah added that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) moved onward to Muzdalifa. where he observed the sunset and the evening prayers with one ‘First call’ and two ‘second calls’. He did not entertain the Glory of Allâh between the two prayers. Then he lay down till it was dawn prayer time. He performed it with one first call and one second call at almost daybreak time. Mounting on his Al-Qaswa’, he moved towards Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haram. He faced Al-Qiblah and started supplicating: “Allâh is the Greatest. There is no god but Allâh.” He remained there till it was clear morning and before the sun rose high, he made his way to Mina. He walked a little and threaded the mid-road leading to the big Jamrah where he stopped and pelted seven pebbles at it saying “Allâh is the Greatest” each time. They were like small pebbles hurled from the bottom of the valley. Then he set off to the sacrificial place, where he sacrificed sixty-three camels with his hands, and asked ‘Ali to slaughter the others, a hundred and thirty-seven altogether. He made ‘Ali share him in Al-Hadi. A piece of meat from each slaughtered animal was ordered to be cooked in a pot and from which both men ate, and drank the soup.

Then the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) mounted his she-camel and returned to the House where he observed the noon prayer at Makkah and there he came upon the children of ‘Abdul Muttalib were supplying drinking water to people at Zamzam Well. “Draw up water, children of ‘Abdul Muttalib, I would draw up with you if I were not afraid that people would appropriate this honour after me.” They handed him a pail of water and he drank to his fill.

At the daytime of the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah on the Slaughtering Day (Yaum An-Nahr) The Prophet (Peace be upon him) delivered another speech. That was at high time morning, while he was mounting a grey mule. ‘Ali conveyed his statements to the people, who were standing or sitting.   He repeated some of the statements that he had previously said the day before. The two Sheikh (Bukhâri and Muslim) reported a version narrated by Abi Bakrah who said:

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) made a speech on Yaum An-Nahr (day of slaughtering) and said:

“Time has grown similar in form and state to the time when Allâh created the heavens and the earth. A year is twelve months. Four of which are Sacred Months (Hurum). Three of the four months are successive. They are Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Al-Muharram. The fourth Month is Rajab Mudar, which comes between Jumada and Sha‘ban.”

“What month is this month?” He asked.

We said: “Allâh and His Messenger know best of all.”

He kept silent for a while till we thought he would attach to it a different appellation. “Is it not Dhul-Hijjah?” He wondered. “Yes. It is.” We said. Then he asked, “What is this town called?” We said: “Allâh and His Messenger know best of all.” He was silent for a while till we thought he would give it a different name. “Is it not Al-Baldah? (i.e. the town)” asked he. “Yes. It is.” We replied. Then he asked again, “What day is it today?” We replied: “Allâh and His Messenger know best of all.” Then he kept silent for a while and said wondering: “Is it not ‘An-Nahr’ (i.e. slaughtering) Day?” “Yes. It is.” Said we. Then he said:

“(Shedding) the blood of one another and eating or taking one another’s provisions (unwillingly) and your honour are all inviolable (Haram). It is unlawful to violate their holiness. They must be as sacred to one another as this sacred day, in this sacred month, in this sacred town.”

“You will go back to be resurrected (after death) to your Lord. There you will be accounted for your deeds. So do not turn into people who go astray and kill one another.”

“Have I not delivered the Message (of my Lord)?” “Yes you have.” Said they. “O Allâh! Bear witness! Let him that is present convey it unto him who is absent. For haply, many people to whom the Message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience,.” said he.

In another version it is said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had said in that very speech:

“He whoever plunges into misfortune will certainly aggrieve himself. So let no one of you inflict an evil upon his parents. Verily Satan has utterly despaired being worshipped in this country of yours; but he will be obeyed at your committing trivial things you disdain. Satan will be contented with such things.”

The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) spent At-Tashreeq Days (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah) in Mina performing the ritual teachings of Islam, remembering Allâh (praying), following the ways of guidance of Ibrahim, wiping out all traces and features or polytheism. On some days of At-Tashreeq he delivered some speeches as well. In a version to Abu Da’ûd with good reference to Sira,’ the daughter of Nabhan; she said: “The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) made us a speech at the Ru’us (Heads) Day in which he said: “Is it not this the middle day of At-Tashreeq Days.”

His speech that day was similar to that of An-Nahr Day’s. It was made after the revelation of Surat An-Nasr.

On the second day of An-Nafr (i.e. Departure) — on the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) proceeded with An-Nafr to Mina and stayed at a high place of a mountain side at Bani Kinanah from Al-Abtah. He spent the rest of that day and night there — where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset and the evening prayers.

Then he slept for a short while and mounted leaving for the Ka‘bah. He performed the Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada‘), after ordering his Companions to do the same thing.

Upon the accomplishment of his religious rituals he quickened his move to the purified Madinah. He went there not to seek rest but to resume the strife and struggle in the way of Allâh.

THE LAST EXPEDITIONS:

The pride of the Byzantine State made it deny Muslims their right to live. The Byzantine arrogance made them even kill those agents of theirs, who embraced Islam. Killing Farwah bin ‘Amr Al-Judhami, who was their agent on Mu’an, was an evidence of their arrogance. Due to that arrogance and presumptuousness of the Byzantines, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) started to mobilize a great army in Safar in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra and made it under the command of Osamah bin Zaid bin Haritha with orders to have the horses of Muslims tread on the lands bordering Al-Balqa’ and Ad-Darum of Palestine. His aim was to terrorize Byzantines and to implant confidence into the hearts of Arabs who were settled at the borders of the Byzantines. His other purpose was to deliver a message to everybody there, so that no one may dare say that the Church brutality can’t go with impunity; and that Islamization is not synonymous with fear and vulnerability.

The leadership of Osamah was subject to criticism. Because he was still too young, people tarried at joining his expedition. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) addressed people saying:

“No wonder now you contest his leadership, for you have already contested the ex-leadership ofhis father. Yes, by Allâh, his father, who was one of the most beloved people to me, was quite efficient for leadership; and this son of his is one of the most beloved individuals to me after his father.”

So people started tending towards Osamah and joined his army. The number of volunteers in his army was so enormous that they formed such a long queue that they had to descend the escarpment — which was a parasang off Madinah. The anxiety-provoking news about the Messenger of Allâh’s sickness, however, made the expedition tarry again in order to know what Allâh had willed as regards His Messenger (Peace be upon him).

It was Allâh’s Will that Osamah’s expedition would be the first one dispatched during the caliphate of the veracious Abu Bakr.


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In The name of Allah,The Most Merciful,The Most gracious

People embrace the Religion of Allah in Large Crowds

Chapter 38,Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar)

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The invasion and the conquest of Makkah was — as we have already stated — a decisive battle that destroyed paganism utterly. The Arabs as a result of that battle were able to differentiate the truth from the error. Delusion no longer existed in their life. So they raced to embrace Islam.

‘Amr bin Salamah said: “We were at a water (spring) where the passage of people was. So when camel riders passed by us we used to ask them: ‘What is the matter with people? What is this man (i.e. the Prophet) like?’ They would say, ‘He claims that Allâh has revealed so and so.’ I used to memorize those words as if they had been recited within my chest.

The Arabs used to ascribe their Islamization to the conquest. They would say: ‘Leave him alone to face his people. If he were a truthful Prophet he would overcome them.’ So when the conquest took place, peoples hastened to declare their Islam. My father was the quickest of all my people to embrace Islam. Arriving at his people he said: ‘By Allâh I have just verily been to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) . And he said: ‘Perform so a prayer at such a time, and so and so prayers at such and such time. When the prayer time is due let one of you call for the prayer and appoint the most learned of the Qur’ân among you to be an Imam (leader) of yours.”

This Prophetic tradition manifests the great effect of the conquest of Makkah on the phase of events. It certainly shows the influence of the conquest of Makkah upon the consolidation of Islam as well as on the Arabs’ stand and their surrender to Islam. That influence was absolutely confirmed and deeply rooted after the invasion of Tabuk. A clear and an obvious evidence of that influence could be deduced from the great number of delegations arriving in Madinah successively in the ninth and tenth years of Al-Hijra.

The immense crowds of people who raced to embrace the religion of Allâh and the great army which included ten thousand fighters in the invasion of the conquest of Makkah had grown big enough to include thirty thousand fighters sharing in Tabuk invasion. It was only in less than a year after the conquest of Makkah that this growth in Islamic army had taken place. A hundred thousand or a hundred and forty four thousand Muslim pilgrims shared in Hajjatul -Wada‘ (i.e. Farewell Pilgrimage); it was such an enormous number of Muslims surging — as an ocean of men — round the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) , that the horizon echoed their voices and the expanses of land shook whereby while saying Labbaik (i.e. Lord, here we are worshipping), glorifying and magnifying Allâh, and thanking Him.

THE DELEGATIONS:

The number of delegations listed in Ahl Al-Maghazi were over seventy. Investigating such a large number is not an accessible thing; besides stating them in detail is not of a great benefit. Therefore, I am going to reveal an expose about what is historically wonderful or highly significant. Anyway a reader should always keep in mind that whilst the majority of tribes arrived in Madinah after the conquest, there were also pre-conquest delegations.

  1. The delegation of ‘Abdul Qais: This tribe had two arrivals. The first was in the fifth year of Al-Hijra or before that date. Munqidh bin Haiyan, a member of that tribe, used to trade in Madinah. So, as soon as he heard of Islam when he had arrived in it for trading — that was after the migration — he embraced Islam and carried a pledge from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to his people who eventually became Muslims too. Thirteen or fourteen of them came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in one of the Hurum Months. It was then that they asked the Prophet’s advice about the Faith and drinks. Their chief was Al-Ashaj Al-Usri, to whom the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) said: “You have two qualities that Allâh likes: They are deliberatenessandclemency.”
  2. Their second arrival was in the Year of Delegations. They were forty men. Al-Jarud bin Al-‘Alâ’ Al-‘Abdi, who was Christian but turned to be a good Muslim, was one of that group.
  3. Daws Delegation: The arrival of this tribe was in the early times of the seventh year and that was when the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was in Khaibar. At-Tufail bin ‘Amr Ad-Dawsi, that we have already talked about and explained how he became a Muslim at the time the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was in Makkah. He went back home to his people where he kept calling people to Islam but they tarried till he despaired of them and returned to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) and asked him to invoke Allâh against Daws but the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) invoked Allâh to guide Daws. Later on, Daws embraced Islam. So At-Tufail arrived in Madinah accompanied by seventy or eighty families of his people in the early times of the seventh year of Al-Hijra, at the time that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was at Khaibar, so he overtook him there.
  4. Farwah Bani ‘Amr Al-Judhami’s messenger: Farwah was an Arab leader in the Byzantine army. He was a Byzantine agent ruler by proxy on the Arabs allied to the Byzantines. His home was at Mu‘an and the surrounding area of Ash-Sham lands. Seeing the stamina and courage of the Muslims he became a Muslim. The battle of Mu’tah — which took place in the eighth year of Al-Hijra — compelled his admiration. He sent a white mule gift with a messenger of his to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) to inform him of his conversion into Islam. When the Byzantines learnt of his embracing Islam, they sent him to prison. At first they gave him an opportunity to choose one of the two — “either he defects from Islam or death shall be his punishment.” Refusing to defect they crucified him and cut his neck at a water (fountain) called ‘Afra’ in Palestine.
  5. Sudâ’ Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was after the departure of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) from Al-Ji‘ranah in the eighth year of Al-Hi. It was because the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had already dispatched a mission that comprised four hundred Muslims and asked them to go to where Sudâ’ was. Sudâ’ was (a fresh-water fountain) in Yemen. While the mission was camping there at the starting point of a canal. Ziyad bin Al-Harith As-Sudâ’i learned of their stay, so he came to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) and said: “I have come to you as a deputy of my people, so tell your army to go back and I guarantee of my people.” The army were sent away off the canal. In his turn As-Sudâ’i went back, cherished and urged his people to come and meet the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him). Eventually fifteen of them came and pledged allegiance to him as true Muslims. Returning home, they in their turn, urged the rest to be Muslims. Thus Islam spread among them. Later on, a hundred men joined the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) in HajjatulWada‘ (Farewell Pilgrimage.)
  6. The arrival of Ka‘b bin Zuhair bin Abi Sulma: Ka‘b who was a member of a family of poets, was considered one of the most poetic Arab poets. He used to satirize the Prophet (Peace be upon him) when he wasn’t a Muslim. In the eighth year of Al-Hijra and at the time that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had already gone back from At-Ta’if invasion, Bujair bin Zuhair wrote a letter to his brother Ka‘b warning and advising him: “The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had killed some men in Makkah who used to satirize and harm him, and that the other poets who had survived fled in all directions for their lives. So if you want to save your skin, hasten to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him). He never kills those who resort to him as repentant. If you refuse to do as I tell, it is up to you to try to save your skin by any means.” The two brothers corresponded with one another for a long time till Ka‘b was awkward and felt as if the earth had constrained on him. Arriving in Madinah, he stayed at a man’s house from Juhainah as a guest. They performed the dawn prayer together; but when he was about to leave, the man suggested that he go to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him). He went there, sat by him, put his hand in his. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) who had never seen Ka‘b before, did not recognize him. Ka‘b then said: “O, Messenger of Allâh! Ka‘b bin Zuhair has come to you as a repentant Muslim; will he be secure and forgiven if I fetch him?” The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) said, “Yes.” “I am Ka‘b bin Zuhair,” said he. Upon hearing that one of the Helpers rose to his feet and asked the Messenger’s allowance to cut his throat. “Leave him alone!” Said the Prophet (Peace be upon him), “He has become a repentant Muslim after his disposal of the past.” Ka‘b then recited his well-known poem “Su‘ad appeared… in which he praised the Prophet (Peace be upon him) , thanked him and apologized for the wrongs he had done. He acknowledged Muhammad’s mission. Both Emigrants and Helpers were spoken of in this poem but differently. He praised the Emigrants but criticized the Helpers, for one of them demanded a Prophet’s permission to kill him. Later on Ka‘b tried to compensate for that by praising the Helpers too but that was in another poem.
  7. ‘Udharah Delegation: This delegation which consisted of twelve men, had arrived in Madinah in Safar, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They spent three days there. One of them was Hamza bin An-Nu‘man. When they were asked who they were, they said “We are Bani ‘Udharah, the foster brothers of Qusai to his mother. We are the ones who supported Qusai, and removed Khuza’a and Bani Bakr from the bosom of Makkah. We have relatives and kinspeople.” So the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) welcomed them and gave good tidings to them, which was Ash-Sham Conquest; but he, on the other hand, forbade them from consulting a soothsayer and from eating the slain animals they slaughtered. Eventually they became Muslims, stayed there for several days then went back.
  8. Bali Delegation: Their arrival was in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They embraced Islam, stayed in Madinah for three days. Their chief Abu Ad-Dabeeb wondered whether hospitality was rewarded by Allâh. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) said:

“Yes, and so is any charity you offer to poor or rich people that is Sadaqah.”

He also inquired about the time allotted to hospitality. “Three days,” said he. “What about the stray ewe?” The Prophet said: “It is either yours or your brother’s, otherwise it goes to the wolf.” He inquired about the stray camel. “It is not of your business. Leave it alone! Its owner will try to find it.”

  1. Thaqif Delegation: Their arrival was in Ramadan, the ninth year of Al-Hijra, after the return of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) from Tabuk. As to how they became Muslims, this could be deduced from the following:
  2. Their chief ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ud Ath-Thaqafi came to see the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) after the latter’s return from At-Ta’if in Dhul-Qa‘dah in the year 8 A.H. ‘Urwah became a Muslim. He thought that when he will tell his people and call them to embrace Islam, they would obey him, because he had always been an obeyed Master. He was even more beloved to them than their own firstborn. But contrary to that, when he called them to Islam they shot arrows at him from everywhere and killed him. They remained as they were for months before they started discussing the situation again among themselves. Upon realizing that they were incapable of fighting the neighbouring Arabs who had paid allegiance to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and converted to Islam, they made up their mind to dispatch a man to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him). They concluded that ‘Abd Yalail bin ‘Amr would be the right messenger.

‘Abd refused to do such a thing lest they should kill him as they had killed ‘Urwah. “I will not do such a thing till you send some other men with me,” said ‘Abd. So they sent two men of their allies and three others from Bani Malik. The six of them including ‘Uthman bin Abi Al-‘As Ath-Thaqafi who was the youngest among them all.

When they entered into the Prophet’s (Peace be upon him) audience, a tent was pitched up in a corner of the mosque so that they might listen to the Qur’ân and see people at prayer. During their stay they came again and again to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) who kept on calling them to embrace Islam, till their chief asked the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) to enter into a peace treaty between him and Thaqif by means of which he allows them to commit fornication, drink wine and deal with usury. They also asked him not to injure their tyrant idol “Al-Lat” or to oblige them to perform the prayer. Finally they insisted that they would not knock down the idols themselves. But the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) turned down all their requests. They went aside to council. Realizing that there were no other alternatives they yielded and professed Islam. The only condition that they insisted on was that the demolition of Al-Lat should be dealt with and handled by the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) whereas Thaqif should in no way knock it down themselves. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) agreed and took a pledge with them.

Being the most attentive and the keenest to study jurisprudence and learn Qur’ân, ‘Uthman bin Abi Al-‘As was appointed by the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) a prince on his people. His keenness and carefulness to learn the Qur’ân and study jurisprudence were clearly discernible through his behaviour during their stay.

Everyday morning, the group of delegates used to go and see the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him). Being the youngest one, ‘Uthman bin Abi Al-‘As was left behind with their camels and things to keep an eye on. At noon when they came back and slept, ‘Uthman used to go to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) in order to learn the Qur’ân and inquire about religious matters. If it happened that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was asleep, he would then go to Abu Bakr for the same purpose. With the pof time, he turned out to be a source of blessing to his people. For at the Apostasy Times (Ar-Riddah) when Thaqif were determined to apostatize, he addressed them saying: “O, folkmen of Thaqif! You have been the latest at embracing Islam, so do not be the first to apostatize.” Consequently they gave up apostasy and clung fast to Islam.

The group of delegates returned home but they were determined to conceal the truth for a while. They told their people to expect fight at any moment. They pretended to be grieved and depressed. They claimed that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) demanded that they should embrace Islam and abandon adultery, drinking wine and dealing with usury and some other things, or else he would fight them. Seized by the arrogance and zeal of Al-Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic traditions), Thaqif remained for days intent on fighting. Then Allâh cast terror and dismay in their hearts in such a way that they gave up fighting and thought that the delegation should go back to him and announce their approval. It was until then that the group of delegates told them the truth and revealed the items of their peace-talk with the Prophet, consequently Thaqif embraced Islam.

The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) sent some men to demolish the idol called “Al-Lat” under the command of Khalid bin Al-Waleed. Al-Mugheerah bin Shu‘bah, stood to his feet, held the hoe and the ax and said: “By Allâh, I will make you laugh at Thaqif.” He struck with them, and pretended to fall down while running. The people of Thaqif trembled at that sight and said: “May Allâh dismay Al-Mugheerah off. The goddess has killed him.” Hearing that Al-Mugheerah leapt up to his feet and said: “May Allâh bring shame on you. Al-Lat is nothing but a mass of dirt and stones.” Then he struck the door and broke it. He mounted its highest wall, and so did the other men. They knocked Al-Lat down till they levelled it with the ground. Then they dug up its foundation and brought out its jewels and garments; to the great astonishment of Thaqif. Khalid bin Al-Waleed and his group came back to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) carrying Al-Lat’s jewels and garments. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) distributed them and thanked Allâh for helping his Prophet and solidifying his religion.

  1. The message of the Yemeni kings: After the return of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) from Tabuk, a message came to him from the kings of Himyar, Al-Harith bin ‘Abd Kilal, Na‘eem bin ‘Abd Kilal, An-Nu‘man bin Qeel Dhi Ra‘in, Hamdan and Mu‘afir. Their messenger was Malik bin Murrah Ar-Rahawi. They sent him in order to inform the Prophet (Peace be upon him) about their embracing Islam and their parting with polytheism. In reply to their message, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) gave them the pledge of Allâh and the pledge of His Messenger provided they paid the tribute, which was still overdue. He sent to them some of his Companions under the command of Mu‘adh bin Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him).
  2. Hamdan Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra after the Messenger’s return from Tabuk. So the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) gave them a pledge to guarantee the fulfillment of their demands. He sent to them Malik bin An-Namt as their chief, and appointed him as an agent on those of his people who embraced Islam. Khalid bin Al-Waleed was appointed for them all with a purpose of calling them to Islam. He stayed with them for six months calling them to Islam but no one responded to his call. Later on ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was dispatched there and Khalid was ordered to come back. Upon arriving at Hamdan, ‘Ali communicated to them a message from the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) and called them to Islam. They responded to the call and became Muslims. ‘Ali wrote to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) informing him of the good tidings. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was briefed on the content of that letter, so he prostrated, then raised his head up and said: “Peace be upon Hamdan. Peace be upon Hamdan.”
  3. The Delegation of Bani Fazarah: Upon the Messenger’s return from Tabuk, the delegation of Bani Fazarah came to see him. That was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. The group of delegates were over ten men. They came in order to profess Islam and complain about the drought of their region. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) ascended the pulpit, lifted his hands up and implored Allâh to send rain forth onto them and said:

“O Allâh let rain fall down, and water Your country and animals, and spread Your mercy and bring to life the dead lands. O Allâh send rain that would be saving, comforting, and sprouting grass, and overwhelming vast areas sooner and later. Let it be useful rain and not harmful. O Allâh let it be rain of mercy and not rain of torture and chastisement. Let that rain not be destructive or floody. O Allâh send us down water and help to fight the enemies.”

  1. Najran’s Delegation: Najran is rather a big area of land. It was at a distance of seven trip stages southwards of Makkah towards Yemen. It included seventy three villages. It took a fast-rider one day ride to get there. Its military forces consisted of a hundred thousand fighters.

Their arrival was in the year 9 A.H. The delegation comprised sixty men. Twenty-four of them were of noble families. Three out of twenty-four were at one time leaders of Najran. Al-‘Aqib, i.e. who was in charge of princehood and government affairs. His name was ‘Abdul Maseeh. The second was As-Saiyid (the Master) under whose supervision were the educational and political affairs; his name was Al-Aiham or Sharhabeel. Abu Haritha bin ‘Alqamah was the third. He was a bishop to whom all religious presidency and spiritual leadership belonged and were his charge.

When that group of delegates arrived in Madinah, they met the Prophet (Peace be upon him), exchanged inquiries with him; but when he called them to Islam and recited the Qur’ân to them, they refused. They asked him what he thought about ‘Isa (i.e. Jesus), (Peace be upon him), he (Peace be upon him) tarried a whole day till the following Qur’ânic reply was revealed to him:

“Verily, the likeness of Jesus before Allâh is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!’ — and he was. (This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of those who doubt. Then whoever disputes with you concerning him (Jesus) after (all this) knowledge that has come to you, (i.e. Jesus being a slave of Allâh, and having no share in Divinity) say: [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] ‘Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves — then we pray and invoke (sincerely) the Curse of Allâh upon those who lie.” [3:59-61]

When it was morning, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) told them what ‘Iesa (Jesus) was in the light of the recently revealed verses. He left them a whole day to consult and think it over. So when it was next morning and they still showed disapproval to admit Allâh’s Words about ‘Isa or to embrace Islam, the Prophet suggested Al-Mubahala that is each party should supplicate and implore Allâh to send His Curse upon him or them if they were telling lies. After that suggestion of his, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) came forward wrapping Al-Hasan and Al-Husain under his garment whereas Fatimah was walking at his back. Seeing that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) was serious and prepared to face them firmly, they went aside and started consulting. Al-‘Aqib and As-Saiyid (i.e. the Master) said to each other: “We shall not supplicate. For, I swear by Allâh, if he is really a Prophet and exchanges curses with us, we will never prosper nor will the descendants of ours. Consequently neither us nor our animals will survive it.” Finally they made their mind to resort to the Messenger of Allâh’s judgement about their cause. They came to him and said: “We grant you what you have demanded.” The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) then admitted that agreement and ordered them to pay Al-Jizya (i.e. tribute) and he made peace with them for the provisioof two thousand garments, one thousand of them to be delivered in Rajab, the other thousand ones in Safar. With every garment they had to pay an ounce (of gold). In return they will have the covenant of Allâh and His Messenger. He gave them a covenant that provides for practicing their religious affairs freely. They asked the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to appoint a trustworthy man to receive the money agreed on for peace, so he sent them the trustworthy man of this nationAbu ‘Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah to receive the amounts of money agreed on in the peace treaty.

By the time Islam started to spread in Najran, naturally, they did not have to pay Al-Jizya that usually non-Muslims paid. Whatever the case was, it was said that Al-Aqib and As-Saiyid embraced Islam as soon as they reached Najran on their journey back home. It is also said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) sent to them ‘Ali too, for the collection of charities and tribute.

  1. Bani Haneefa Delegation: They arrived in Madinah in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They were 17 in number and included the Master of Liars, Musailima bin Thumamah bin Kabeer bin Habeeb bin Al-Harith of Bani Haneefa The group of delegates were housed in a Helper’s house. They came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and declared their Islamization. As for Musailima the liar, versions vary concerning his embracing Islam. Contemplation of all these versions shows clearly that Musailima expressed disapproval and revealed haughtiness, boastful spirit and expectations to be a prince.

At first the Prophet (Peace be upon him) attempted going on well with him. he dealt with him nicely and charitably but that did not do with him. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) perceived evil in his soul and recognized that he was one of those three evils he dreamt of while asleep.

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had already dreamt that he had been granted the treasures of earth. His hand fell upon two golden bracelets, which distressed and worried him a lot. He was taught by inspiration to blow them off, so he did that and they were gone off. They were interpreted to be two liars who would turn up after the death of Muhammad (Peace be upon him). So when Musailima acted that way and showed disapproval, he realized that he would be one of the two liars. However Musailima used to say, “If Muhammad appointed me a successor of his, I would be a Muslim. Later on the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) came to him, with a piece of palm leaf in his hand, and in the company of his orator, Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas. He was among some of his friends. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) talked to him but Musailima addressed him saying: “If you agree to transfer the whole thing to me after your death, I will not stand in your way.” The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) replied: “If you asked me to give you this (i.e. a piece of a palm leaf), I would not grant it to you. You are doomed. Even if you repented and stopped what you were doing, Allâh appointed that you would be slain. By Allâh, I swear, that I see you now in the very state that has been revealed to me. Here is Thabit! You will hear my answer (from him).” Then he went away.

Finally, the Prophet’s predictions of Musailima came true; for when Musailima returned to Yamama, he kept on thinking about the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and how he would be his partner. His dreams and thoughts went so far as to claim that he himself was a prophet. To confirm his prophecy he started uttering rhymed statements. He said that it was lawful to drink wine and commit adultery. He, however, bore witness that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) was a real Prophet. His people, who were fascinated by what he allowed them to do, followed him and made bargains with him. He grew so prominent among them that they called him the beneficent of Al-Yamama. He wrote to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) saying: “I have been appointed an associate with you, so I will have a half and Quraish will have the other half of the people’s affairs.” The Messenger of Allâh’s reply was a letter saying that:

“Verily, the earth is Allâh’s. He gives it as a heritage to whom He will of His slaves, and the (blessed) end is for the Muttaqûn (pious).” [7:128]

On the authority of Ibn Mas‘ud, he says: When the two messengers of Musailima — Ibn An-Nawaha and Ibn Athal — came to the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him), he asked them: “Do you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allâh?” Their reply was “We testify that Musailima is the Messenger of Allâh.” “I believe in Allâh and in His Messenger,” said the Prophet (Peace be upon him), “If I had ever thought of killing a messenger I would have killed you both.”

Musailima’s pretence to prophethood was in the tenth year of Al-Hijra. But he was killed in Al-Yamama war during Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq era, in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, in the twelfth year of Al-Hijra. He was killed by Wahshi, the killer of Hamzah. The second person who claimed to be a prophet was Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi who was in Yemen. He was killed by Fairuz. His head was cut off a day and a night before the Prophet’s death. So when the delegates came he told them the news that reached him through Divine Revelation. News about his death reached Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) from Yemen.

  1. The Delegation of Bani ‘Amir bin Sa‘sa‘a: Among the group of delegates were ‘Amir bin At-Tufail — the enemy of Allâh, Arbad bin Qais — Labid’s maternal brother, Khalid bin Ja‘far, and Jabbar bin Aslam. All of them were the leaders and satans of their people. ‘Amir was the one who double-crossed the group of Ma‘una well. When this delegation made their mind to come to Madinah, ‘Amir and Arbad conspired to kill the Prophet (Peace be upon him). So when the group of delegates arrived, ‘Amir kept on talking to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) whereas Arbad turned aside trying to draw his sword. He managed to draw a span of hand long but Allâh stilled his hand so that he was unable to proceed with its withdrawal. Allâh protected the Prophet (Peace be upon him). The Prophet (Peace be upon him) invoked Allâh against them. So when they returned, Allâh sent down a thunderbolt unto Arbad and his camel and he was burnt. As for ‘Amir he called at a house of a woman who was from Bani Salul and had a gland sore. He eventually died while he was saying: “What am I like? I have a gland similar to a camel’s. And here I am dying in the house of the woman from Bani Salul.”
  2. In Sahih Al-Bukhari it is narrated that ‘Amir came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and said: “I grant you an opportunity to choose one of two: you will have the flat land people and I will have townspeople; or I will succeed you. Otherwise, I will invade your people with a thousand he-camels and a thousand she-camels.” But, later on he got plague-stricken in a woman’s house. So he said: “What! I have a gland similar to a camel’s, and here I am in a woman’s house of Bani so and so people. Fetch me my mare!” He mounted it but died on its back.
  3. Tujeeb Delegation: They came to Madinah carrying the surplus of charities (Sadaqat) of their people. That is to say the extra charities they had after they had distributed the poor-due. They were thirteen men. They asked about the Qur’ân and Sunnah (the Prophet’s saying, deeds and sanctions) so that they might learn them. They demanded things from the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) to which he gave them pledges. They did not stay long; so when the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) acknowledged their demands and allowed them to depart, they sent him a boy whom they had already left at their property. The young man said to the Prophet (Peace be upon him): “By Allâh, I swear, I have left my home (for Madinah) with a purpose that you invoke Allâh, the Great and All-Mighty for me to forgive me and have mercy on me and to make my heart a source of content and sufficiency.” The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) supplicated Allâh to grant him what he demanded.
  4. From that time on, he was the most contented person. In Ar-Riddah (i.e. the Apostasy Times), he stoodfast as a Muslim and warned his people and reminded them of Aâh and went on preaching them till they stoodfast and did not apostatize. The group of delegates met the Prophet (Peace be upon him) again in the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year of Al-Hijra.
  5. Tai’ Delegation: One of that group of delegates who came to meet the Prophet (Peace be upon him) was Zaid Al-Khail. They talked to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) who urged them to embrace Islam. They agreed and grew good Muslims. About Zaid, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) said: “The Arabs are never exact at estimating people. They have never told me about the virtues of a man correctly; for when I see the man concerned I realize that they have overestimated him except Zaid Al-Khail, when I met him I knew that they had underestimated him.” Then he named him ‘Zaid Al-Khair’ (i.e. Zaid, the bounteous).

The delegations arrived successively in Madinah during the ninth and tenth of Al-Hijra. Biographers and invasion-writers have written down about some of Yemen delegations. They were Al-Azd; Bani Sa‘d Hadheem from Quda‘ah, Bani ‘Amir bin Qais; Bani Asad, Bahra’, Khaulan, Muharib, Bani Al-Harith bin Ka‘b, Ghamid, Bani Al-Muntafiq, Salaman, Bani ‘Abs, Muzainah, Murad, Zabid, Kinda, Dhi Murrah, Ghassan, Bani ‘Aish, and Nakh‘ which were the last group of delegates. Nakh‘ Delegation comprised two hundred men and they arrived in the middle of Muharram in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra. The majority of these groups of delegates arrived during the ninth and tenth years of Al-Hijra. The arrival of some of them tarried till the eleventh year of Al-Hijra.

The succession of these delegations indicated the great degree of the entire acceptance which the Islamic Call reached. It manifested its influence and domination on vast areas of Arabia . The Arabs observed Al-Madinah with such a great respect and estimation that they could do nothing but surrender and submit to it. Al-Madinah had become the headquarters of all Arabia; so it was impossible to avoid it. We dare not say that all the Arabians were possessed and enchanted by this religion. There were lots of hard-hearted bedouins — among the Arabs — who surrendered (i.e. became Muslims) only because their master did so. Their souls were not sanctified yet. Their tendency to raids had been deeply rooted in their souls. The teachings of Islam had not crystallized their souls well yet. Accounting some of them the Qur’ân says:

“The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allâh’s Commandments and His legal laws, etc.) which Allâh has revealed to His Messenger. And Allâh is All-Knower, All-Wise. And of the bedouins there are some who look upon what they spend (in Allâh’s cause) as a fine and watch for calamities for you, on them be the calamity of evil. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” [9:97,98]

The Qur’ân praised others saying:

“And of the bedouins there are some who believe in Allâh and the Last Day, and look upon what they spend in Allâh’s cause as approaches to Allâh, and a cause of receiving the Messenger’s invocations. Indeed these are an approach for them. Allâh will admit them to His Mercy. Certainly Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [9:99]

Those of them who were present at Makkah, Madinah and Thaqif and in many other areas of Al-Yemen and Al-Bahrain were different because Islam had been firmly rooted in their souls. Some of them were great Companions and Masters of Muslims.

THE SUCCESS AND IMPACT OF THE CALL:

Before we move one more step and meditate on the last days of the Messenger of Allâh’s life, we ought to cast a quick glance at the great work that was a peculiarity of his. That very peculiarity that made him excel all other Prophets and Messengers and made him so superb that Allâh made him atop the formers and the latters. It was him that was addressed by:

“O you wrapped in garments [i.e Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)]! Stand (to pray) all night, except a little.” [73:1,2]

And said:

“O you [Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] enveloped (in garments). Arise and warn!” [74:1,2]

So he arose and kept on like that for over twenty years. During those years he undertook to carry the burdens of the great expectations on his shoulders for the sake of the whole mankind and humanity, the Faith and Jihad in various fields.

The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) undertook the burdens of struggle and Al-Jihad in the conscience of mankind which was then drowning in the illusions of Al-Jahiliyah and its images that were loaded with the ground weights and gravitations. He took upon his shoulder to free man’s conscience which was chained with desires and lusts. As soon as he had freed the conscience of his Companions from the burdens and heaps of Al-Jahiliyah and earthly life, he started another battle in another field or rather successive battles against the enemy of Allâh’s Call, and against those who conspired against it. It was a battle against those who conspired against the believers and against those who were so careful to tend that pure plant in its implantation before it grew up and stretched its roots in soil and extended its branches up into the air and thus dawned upon other areas. No sooner had he finished the battles in the Arabian Peninsula than the Byzantines began preparations to destroy this new nation on the northern borders.

The first battle — i.e. the battle of conscience — was not over yet. It was in fact a perpetual one. Satan, who was its leader did not spare a moment without exercising his activity in the depth of human conscience. Muhammad (Peace be upon him), on the other hand was attending on calling to Allâh’s religion there and he was keen on fighting that perpetual battle in all fields in spite of their hard circumstances and the world’s conspiracy against him. He went on calling effectively and actively surrounded by the believers who were seeking security through ceaseless toil and great patience.

The Companions acted perpetually and patiently by day and they spent the night worshipping their Lord, reciting and memorizing the Qur’ân glorifying and magnifying Allâh and imploring Him by night; all that at the behest of their Lord, the All-Mighty.

For over twenty years the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had been leading that progressive steady battle, disregarding any other affairs that kept him off that noble goal. He went on that way till the Islamic Call proved to be successful on a large scale that puzzled all men possessed of good reason.

The Islamic Call eventually prevailed all over Arabia. It removed all traces of Al-Jahiliyah from the horizon of the peninsula. The sick minds of Al-Jahiliyah grew healthy in Islam. They did not only get rid of idol-worship, but they also knocked them down. The general atmosphere began to echo “there is no god but Allâh.” The calls to prayers were heard five times a day penetrating space and breaking the silence of the dead desert and bringing back life through the new belief. Reciters and memorizers of the Qur’ân set out northwards and southwards reciting verses of the Qur’ân and carrying out Allâh’s injunctions.

Scattered people and tribes were united and man moved from man’s worship of man to man’s worship of Allâh. There were no more oppressors nor oppressed; no masters nor slaves, nor people bound to other people, nor aggressors that would practise aggression. All people were slaves of Allâh. They were beloved brothers obeying Allâh’s rules. Thanks to Allâh they disposed of arrogance and the boastful spirit:

“An Arab is no better than a non-Arab. In return a non-Arab is no better than an Arab. A red raced man was not better than a black one except in piety. Mankind are all Adam’s children and Adam was created from dust.”

Thanks to the Islamic Call, the Arab unity had become a reality, and so was the case with human unity and social justice as far as their earthly and heavenly affairs were concerned. The time course of events had changed, the features on the earth’s surface and the crooked line of history had grown straight and the mentality had been rectified.

The spirit and the corrupted conscience of people, the distorted valand measures of Al-Jahiliyah had overwhelmed the whole world during that period of Al-Jahiliyah. The prevalence of slavery, injustice, extravagant luxury, adultery, depression, deprivity, disbelief, stray from the straight path and darkness; all of those were fait accomplis in spite of the existence of the heavenly religions. The teachings of those religions had grown weak and lost all influence on men’s souls and spirits and became mere lifeless ritual traditions.

When this Call had accomplished its role in human life, it freed mankind’s spirit of superstitions, illusions, white slavery, corruption and man’s worship of man. Islam had freed the human society of filth, dissolution, injustice and tyranny. There were no more social distinctions, nor clergymen’s or governors’ dictatorship. Islam had set up a world built on solid virtuous and clean foundations, it was based on positivity, righteous construction, freedom and renewal. Truth, faith, dignity active steady deeds, the development and improvement of means of living and reclaim of rights were all bases upon which the Islamic state was built.

Thanks to these evolutions, Arabia witnessed such an unprecedented blessed resurrection, since construction and establishment found its way to it. Never had its history been so religious, pious and brilliant as it had been during those peculiar days of its life.


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In The name of Allah,The Most Merciful,The Most gracious

Some Important Events that featured that Year

Chapter 37,Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar)

DURING THIS YEAR MANY EVENTS OF GREAT SIGNIFICANCE TOOK PLACE THEY WERE:

  1. After the Messenger’s return from Tabuk, the sworn allegation of infidelity between ‘Uwaimir Al-‘Ajlani and his wife took place.
  2. Pelting with stones the Ghamidiyah woman who confessed  committing adultery. She was pelted with stones only after weaning her child off her breast milk.
  3. Negus Ashama; the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), died so the Prophet (Peace be upon him) performed prayer in absentia for him.
  4. The death of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), the Prophet felt extremely sad at her death. “Had I got a third daughter, I would let you marry her.” He said to ‘Uthman.
  5. The death of ‘Abdullah bin Abi Salool, the head of hypocrites, after the Prophet’s return from Tabuk. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) asked Allâh’s forgiveness for him. He also prayed for him in spite of ‘Umar’s disapproval and his attempt to prevent him from doing that. Later on a Qur’ânic verse was revealed attesting to ‘Umar’s right viewpoint.

ABU BAKR (May Allah be pleased with him) PERFORMS THE PILGRIMAGE:

In the month Dhul-Qa‘dah or in Dhul-Hijjah of the very year (the ninth of Al-Hijra), the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) dispatched Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him), the truthful, as a deputy prince of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage), so that he would lead the Muslims in performing of the pilgrimage rituals.

Soon after the departure of the Muslims, there came a Revelation from Allâh: the opening passages of the Chapter 9 entitled ‘Repentance’ (Surah Tauba or Bara’a) in which ‘freedom from obligation’ is proclaimed from Allâh in regard to those idolatrous tribes who had shown no respect for the treaties which they had entered into with the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Communication of this news went in line with the Arabian traditions of making public any change relating to declining conventions of blood and fortunes.

‘Ali bin Abi Talib was deputed to make this declaration. He overtook Abu Bakr at Al-‘Arj or Dajnan. Abu Bakr inquired whether the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had put him in command or he had just been commissioned to make the announcement. “I have been deputed to make the proclamation only” replied ‘Ali. The two Companions then proceeded with the pilgrimage process. Towards the close of the rituals, on the day of the ritual sacrifice, ‘Ali stood at Al-Jamrah (a spot at which stones are pelted) and read aloud to the multitudes that thronged around him and declared quittance from covenants with idolaters and giving them four months’ respite to reconsider their position. As for the other idolaters with whom the believers had a treaty and had abated nothing of the Muslims’ rights nor had supported anyone against them, then the terms of the treaty would run valid until the duration of which expired.

Abu Bakr then sent some Muslims to declare publicly that no disbeliever would after that year perform pilgrimage, nor would anyone be allowed to make the Tawaf (going round) of the Sacred House unclothed.

That proclamation in fact vetoed all aspects of paganism out of Arabia and stated quite unequivocally that those pre-Islam practices were no longer in operation.

A MEDITATION ON THE GHAZWAT:

Meditation on the Prophet’s Ghazawat, missions, and the battalions he formed and dispatched, will certainly give us and everybody a true and clear impression that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) was the greatest military leader in the whole world as well as the most righteous, the most insightful and the most alert one. He was not a man of superior genius for this concern but he was also the Master and the greatest of all Messengers as far as Prophethood and Heavenly Message are concerned. Besides, all the battles that he had fought were standard in their application to the requirements of strictness, bravery, and good arrangements that fitted the terms and conditions of war. None of the battles he fought was lost as a consequence of shortage of wisdom or due to any other technical error in army mobilization or a location in a wrong strategical position. The loss of any of his battle was not due to misjudgement about occupying the best and the most appropriate sites of battles, nor was it due to a mischoice of leaders of the fight, for he had proved himself to be a peculiar sort of leader that differs from any of those leaders that our world had known and experienced. As regards Uhud and Hunain events, there were consequences of weakness in some military elements in Hunain; and disobedience to orders in Uhud. Their non-compliance with wisdom and the plan of the battle played a passive role in the course of those two invasions.

His genius was clearly shown in these two battles when the Muslims were defeated; for he stoodfast facing the enemy and managed, by his super wisdom, to thwart the enemy’s aim as was the case in Uhud. Similarly he managed to change the Muslims’ defeat in Hunain into a victory. Nothwithstanding the fact that serious grave developments in military operations usually leave the worst impression on the military leaders and entice them to flee for their lives.

We have, so far, discussed the mere aspects of military leadership of the invasions. On the other hand, through these invasions he was able to impose security, institute peace, diffuse dissension and destroy the military might of the enemies through relentless struggle between Islam and paganism.

The Prophet had also profound insight and could differentiate the faithful from the hypocrites and plotters.

Great was the group of military leaders who fought and excelled the Persians and the Byzantines in the battlefields of Ash-Sham and Iraq with respect to war strategy and leading the fight procedures. The very leaders, who succeeded Muhammad (Peace be upon him) , managed to drive off the enemies of Islam, from their lands and countries, their gardens and springs, and their farms. They drove them off their honourable residence and from the grace and provisions they owned and enjoyed. Those Muslim leaders were all Muhammad’s men. They were imbued with the spirit of Islam at the hand of the Prophet (Peace be upon him).

Thanks to these battles, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) managed accommodation, secured land and provided chances of work for all Muslims. He, even, made a lot of inquiries about the refugee problems who (then) had no houses or fortunes. He equipped the army with weapons, horses and expenditures. He had all that realized without exercising a particle weight of injustice. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) has altered the standards and aims of pre-Islamic wars. Their war was no more than robbing, killing, plundering, tyranny and aggression-oriented wars. Those wars focused on winning victory, oppressing the weakling and demolishing their houses and constructions. For them, war was a means by which they can rape or unveil women, practise cruelty against the weakling, the babies and small children, spoil tillage and race, and spread corruption on the earth. Islamic wars are different from pre-Islamic wars. A “war” in Islam is a Jihad. That is to say it is a noble sacred fight in the way of Allâh for the verification of a Muslim society that seeks to free man from oppression, tyranny and aggression. It is a society that everyone everywhere and at all times should be proud of.Pre-Islamic thoughts and traditions of Al-Jahiliyah period have been turned upside down by Islam. These were so hard upon the weakling that they had to invoke Allâh to enable them to get away from that pre-Islamic environment by saying:

“Our Lord, rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.”

The war of corruption, slaying and robbing that used to prevail has now turned into a sacred one, Al-Jihad. One of the greatest aims of Al-Jihad is to free man from the aggression, the oppression and the tyranny of men of power. A man of power, in Islam, is a weakling till after the right of the poor is taken from him. War, in Islam, is a Jihad for the purification of the land of Allâh from dece, treachery, sinful deeds and aggression. It is a sacred war that aims at spreading security, safety, mercy and compassion as well as observing the rights and magnanimity. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had issued honorable strict rules about war and bade his soldiers and leaders to comply with them. They were forbidden to break those rules under any circumstances. In reference to Sulaiman bin Buraidah’s version, who said that his father had told him that whenever the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) appointed a leader on an army or on a battalion, he used to recommend him to fear Allâh, the Great and All-Mighty, when dealing with those who were closest to him and to be good with all Muslims. Then the Prophet (Peace be upon him) would say to him:

“Let your invasion be in the Name of Allâh and for His sake. Fight those who disbelieve in Allâh. Invade but do not exaggerate nor commit treachery. Never deform the corpse of a dead person or kill an infant child.”

The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) asked people to facilitate but he forbade them to bear down hard on others or constrain. “Pacify”, he said, “and do not disincline”. When it happened that he arrived at the battlefield by night, he would never invade the enemy till it was morning. He utterly forbade burning (i.e. torturing people) in fire, killing children and women or even beating them. He also forbade theft and robbery and proceeded so far as to say gains acquired through plundering are not less forbidden than the flesh of a corpse. Corruption of tillage and race and cutting down of trees were all forbidden unless they were badly needed and there was no other substitute:

“Do not kill a wounded person nor run after a fleeing one or kill a captive.”

He decreed that envoys cannot be killed. He also stressed on not killing those who made covenants. He even said:

“He whoever kills one who is under pledge to a covenant shall not smell Paradise, though its smell could be experienced at a forty-year distance from it.”

There were some other noble rules which purified wars from their Al-Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic) filthiness and turned them into sacred wars.


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In The name of Allah,The Most Merciful,The Most gracious

Miracles of the  Prophet Muhammad ( sallalahi alaihi Wa sallam) VOL-II

Assalam Alaykum Brother and Sisters,

Non-Muslims try to insult prophet muhammad [pbuh] using many hadith from trusted Hadiths and try to spread lies about Muhammad S.A.W.

it means they believe on that hadith,If they believe then must believe on this list also.

A number of miracles were bestowed upon and performed by Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to establish the proof of his prophethood. The greatest miracle bestowed upon him was the revelation of the Qur’an. The Qur’an is miraculous in a number of aspects: Its linguistic perfection and inimitability, its validation by recent historical, archaeological, and scientific discoveries, its prophecies and so on. Unlike the miracles of other prophets before him, the miracle of the Qur’an is eternal. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) also provided us with a number of true prophecies.

Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] was not able to do by him self,But Allah Helped and guided him to do these Miracles.. Jesus a.s in Bible did same.Below are accounts of the some of the other miracles of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) .

The First Part We Published before… To Read Part 1 of this Article , click here THis is Second Part !

Crying of the stem of the Date-palm Tree

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 783:

Narrated Ibn Umar:

The Prophet used to deliver his sermons while standing beside a trunk of a datepalm. When he had the pulpit made, he used it instead. The trunk started crying and the Prophet went to it, rubbing his hand over it (to stop its crying).

Glorification of Allah by the Prophet’s meals

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 779:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

We used to consider miracles as Allah’s Blessings, but you people consider them to be a warning. Once we were with Allah’s Apostle on a journey, and we ran short of water. He said, “Bring the water remaining with you.” The people brought a utensil containing a little water. He placed his hand in it and said, “Come to the blessed water, and the Blessing is from Allah.” I saw the water flowing from among the fingers of Allah’s Apostle, and no doubt, we heard the meal glorifying Allah, when it was being eaten (by him).

The expulsion of a liar’s corpse by the Earth

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 814:

Narrated Anas:

There was a Christian who embraced Islam and read Surat-al-Baqara and Al-Imran, and he used to write (the revelations) for the Prophet. Later on he returned to Christianity again and he used to say: “Muhammad knows nothing but what I have written for him.” Then Allah caused him to die, and the people buried him, but in the morning they saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is the act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and took his body out of it because he had run away from them.” They again dug the grave deeply for him, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is an act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and threw his body outside it, for he had run away from them.” They dug the grave for him as deep as they could, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. So they believed that what had befallen him was not done by human beings and had to leave him thrown (on the ground).

The Speech of the Wolf

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 517:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “While a man was riding a cow, it turned towards him and said, ‘I have not been created for this purpose (i.e. carrying), I have been created for sloughing.l” The Prophet added, “I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar believe in the story.” The Prophet went on, “A wolf caught a sheep, and when the shepherd chased it, the wolf said, ‘Who will be its guard on the day of wild beasts, when there will be no shepherd for it except me?’ “After narrating it, the Prophet said, “I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar too believe it.” Abu Salama (a sub-narrator) said, “Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were not present then.”

It has been written that a wolf also spoke to one of the companions of the Prophet near Medina as narrated in Fath-al-Bari:Narrated Unais bin ‘Amr: Ahban bin Aus said, “I was amongst my sheep. Suddenly a wolf caught a sheep and I shouted at it. The wolf sat on its tail and addressed me, saying, ‘Who will look after it (i.e. the sheep) when you will be busy and not able to look after it? Do you forbid me the provision which Allah has provided me?’ ” Ahban added, “I clapped my hands and said, ‘By Allah, I have never seen anything more curious and wonderful than this!’ On that the wolf said, ‘There is something (more curious) and wonderful than this; that is, Allah’s Apostle in those palm trees, inviting people to Allah (i.e. Islam).’ “Unais bin ‘Amr further said, “Then Ahban went to Allah’s Apostle and informed him what happened and embraced Islam.)” palm trees or other trees and share the fruits with me.”

The Prophet’s Night Journey to Jerusalem (Arabic: Israa) and Ascent to the Heavens (Arabic: Miraj)

Volume 5, Book 58, Number 228:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

Regarding the Statement of Allah”

“And We granted the vision (Ascension to the heavens) which We made you see (as an actual eye witness) was only made as a trial for the people.” (17.60)

Ibn Abbas added: The sights which Allah’s Apostle was shown on the Night Journey when he was taken to Bait-ul Maqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) were actual sights, (not dreams). And the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Quran is the tree of Zaqqum (itself) .

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 462:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, “On the night of my Ascent to the Heaven, I saw Moses who was a tall brown curly-haired man as if he was one of the men of Shan’awa tribe, and I saw Jesus, a man of medium height and moderate complexion inclined to the red and white colors and of lank hair. I also saw Malik, the gate-keeper of the (Hell) Fire and Ad-Dajjal amongst the signs which Allah showed me.” (The Prophet then recited the Holy Verse): “So be not you in doubt of meeting him’ when you met Moses during the night of Mi’raj over the heavens” (32.23)

Narrated Anas and Abu Bakra: “The Prophet said, “The angels will guard Medina from Ad-Dajjal (who will not be able to enter the city of Medina).”

Volume 5, Book 58, Number 227:

Narrated Abbas bin Malik:

Malik bin Sasaa said that Allah’s Apostle described to them his Night Journey saying, “While I was lying in Al-Hatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here.” I asked Al-Jarud who was by my side, “What does he mean?” He said, “It means from his throat to his pubic area,” or said, “From the top of the chest.” The Prophet further said, “He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought to me and my heart was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me.” (On this Al-Jarud asked, “Was it the Buraq, O Abu Hamza?” I (i.e. Anas) replied in the affirmative). The Prophet said, “The animal’s step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animal’s sight. I was carried on it, and Gabriel set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven.

When he asked for the gate to be opened, it was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel answered, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has Muhammad been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the first heaven, I saw Adam there. Gabriel said (to me). ‘This is your father, Adam; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me till we reached the second heaven. Gabriel asked for the gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel answered, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel answered in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’ The gate was opened.

When I went over the second heaven, there I saw Yahya (i.e. John) and ‘Isa (i.e. Jesus) who were cousins of each other. Gabriel said (to me), ‘These are John and Jesus; pay them your greetings.’ So I greeted them and both of them returned my greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the third heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the third heaven there I saw Joseph. Gabriel said (to me), ‘This is Joseph; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fourth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excel lent visit his is!’

The gate was opened, and when I went over the fourth heaven, there I saw Idris. Gabriel said (to me), ‘This is Idris; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fifth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked. ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is! So when I went over the fifth heaven, there I saw Harun (i.e. Aaron), Gabriel said, (to me). This is Aaron; pay him your greetings.’ I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the sixth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked. ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. It was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’

When I went (over the sixth heaven), there I saw Moses. Gabriel said (to me),’ This is Moses; pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ When I left him (i.e. Moses) he wept. Someone asked him, ‘What makes you weep?’ Moses said, ‘I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the seventh heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked,’ Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’

So when I went (over the seventh heaven), there I saw Abraham. Gabriel said (to me), ‘This is your father; pay your greetings to him.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.’ Then I was made to ascend to Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (i.e. the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary) Behold! Its fruits were like the jars of Hajr (i.e. a place near Medina) and its leaves were as big as the ears of elephants. Gabriel said, ‘This is the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary) . Behold ! There ran four rivers, two were hidden and two were visible, I asked, ‘What are these two kinds of rivers, O Gabriel?’ He replied,’ As for the hidden rivers, they are two rivers in Paradise and the visible rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates.’

Then Al-Bait-ul-Ma’mur (i.e. the Sacred House) was shown to me and a container full of wine and another full of milk and a third full of honey were brought to me. I took the milk. Gabriel remarked, ‘This is the Islamic religion which you and your followers are following.’ Then the prayers were enjoined on me: They were fifty prayers a day. When I returned, I passed by Moses who asked (me), ‘What have you been ordered to do?’ I replied, ‘I have been ordered to offer fifty prayers a day.’ Moses said, ‘Your followers cannot bear fifty prayers a day, and by Allah, I have tested people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel (in vain). Go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers’ burden.’ So I went back, and Allah reduced ten prayers for me. Then again I came to Moses, but he repeated the same as he had said before. Then again I went back to Allah and He reduced ten more prayers. When I came back to Moses he said the same, I went back to Allah and He ordered me to observe ten prayers a day. When I came back to Moses, he repeated the same advice, so I went back to Allah and was ordered to observe five prayers a day.

When I came back to Moses, he said, ‘What have you been ordered?’ I replied, ‘I have been ordered to observe five prayers a day.’ He said, ‘Your followers cannot bear five prayers a day, and no doubt, I have got an experience of the people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel, so go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your follower’s burden.’ I said, ‘I have requested so much of my Lord that I feel ashamed, but I am satisfied now and surrender to Allah’s Order.’ When I left, I heard a voice saying, ‘I have passed My Order and have lessened the burden of My Worshippers.”

With this I End this Article,Here We Mentioned the Miracles those were listed in HADITH Sahih Bukhari,More We will see later InshahAllah!

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In The name of Allah,The Most Merciful,The Most gracious

Delegations and Expeditions following

Chapter 31,Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar)

l-Muraisi‘ Ghazwah:

  1. A military expedition led by ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf was despatched to the habitation of Bani Kalb in Doumat Al-Jandal in Sha‘ban 6 Hijri. Before setting out, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) summoned ‘Abdur Rahman, and placed his hand on the latter’s hand invoking Allâh’s blessings and giving him commandments to act magnanimously during the war. He told him to marry the king’s daughter if they obeyed him. ‘Abdur Rahman stayed among those people for three days, invited them to Islam and they responded positively. He then did marry the king’s daughter Tamadur bint Al-Asbagh.
  2. In the same month and year, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was despatched at the head of a platoon to the habitation of Bani Sa‘d bin Bakr in a place called Fadk. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) had been reported that those had rallied ranks to support the Jews. The Muslim fighters used to march in the day and lurk at night. On their way, they captured an enemy scout who admitted being sent to Khaibar tribe, to offer them support in return for their dates. ‘Ali and his companions raided their encampment, captured five hundred camels and two thousand goats, but Banu Sa‘d, with their chieftain Wabr bin ‘Aleem had fled away.
  3. An expedition led by Abu Bakr As-Siddiq or Zaid bin Haritha was despatched to Wadi Al-Qura in Ramadan 6 Hijri after Fazara sept had made an attempt at the Prophet’s life. Following the morning prayer, the detachment was given orders to raid the enemy. Some of them were killed and others captured. Amongst the captives, were Umm Qirfa and her beautiful daughter, who was sent to Makkah as a ransom for the release of some Muslim prisoners there. Umm Qirfa’s attempts at the Prophet’s life recoiled on her, and the thirty horsemen she had gathered and sustained to implement her evil scheme were all killed.
  4. Anas bin Malik reported that some people belonging to tribe of ‘Uraina came to Allâh’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) and made pretensions to Islam. They stayed in Madinah but found its climate uncongenial, so they were asked to pitch their tents in the pastures nearby. They did so and were all right. They then fell on the Prophet’s shepherd and killed him, turned apostates from Islam and drove off the camels. This news reached the Prophet (Peace be upon him), who sent a group of twenty Muslims led by Karz bin Jabir Al-Fihri on their track. They were brought and handed over to him. He had their hands and feet cut off, their eyes gouged out in recompense for their behaviour, and then they were thrown on the stony ground until they died.

Biographers also reported ‘Amr bin Omaiya Ad-Damari and Salamah bin Abi Salamah to have been sent on an errand to kill Abu Sufyan, the chief of Quraish, who had already sent a bedouin to kill the Prophet (Peace be upon him). The two-men mission failed except for three polytheists killed on the way. It is noteworthy that all the foregone invasions did not imply real bitter fighting, they were rather skirmishes or punitive military manoeuvres carried out to deter some enemies still unsubdued. Deep meditation on the development of war circumstances reveal the continuous collapse of the morale among the enemies of Islam, who had come to understand that they were no longer in a position to contain the Islamic call or weaken its active drive. This state of affairs reached its climax in Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty when the two belligerent parties, believers and disbelievers, entered into a truce agreement that pointed markedly to the ever-growing power of Islam, and recorded unequivocally the perpetuity of this heavenly religion in pan-Arabia.

Al-HUDAIBIYAH TREATY (Dhul Qa‘dah 6 A.H.):

When Arabia began to witness the large impressive sweep in favour of the Muslims, the forerunners of the great conquest and success of the Islamic Call started gradually to loom on the demographic horizon, and the true believers restored their undisputed right to observe worship in the sacred sanctuary.

It was about the sixth year Hijri when the Prophet (Peace be upon him) saw in a dream, while he was still in Madinah, that he had entered the sacred sanctuary in Makkah in security with his followers, and was performing the ceremonies of ‘Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). Their heads were being shaved and hair cut off. As soon as he informed some of his Companions the contents of his dream, their hearts leapt up with joy since they found in it the actualization of their deep longing to take part in pilgrimage and its hallowed rites after an exile of six years.

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had his clothes washed, mounted his camel and marched out towards Makkah at the head of fifteen hundred Muslims including his wife Umm Salamah. Some desert bedouins whose Faith was lukewarm hung back and made excuses. They carried no weapons with them except sheathed swords because they had no intention of fighting. Ibn Umm Maktum was mandated to dispose the affairs of Madinah during the Prophet’s absence. As they approached Makkah, and in a place called Dhi Hulaifa, he ordered that the sacrificial animals be garlanded, and all believers donned Al-Ihrâm, the pilgrim’s garb. He despatched a reconnoiterer to hunt around for news of the enemy. The man came back to tell the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that a large number of slaves, as well as a huge army, were gathered to oppose him, and that the road to Makkah was completely blocked. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) consulted his Companions, who were of the opinion that they would fight none unless they were debarredfrom performing their pilgrimage.

The Quraishites, on their part, held a meeting during which they considered the whole situation and decided to resist the Prophet’s mission at all costs. Two hundred horsemen led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed were despatched to take the Muslims by surprise during Zuhr (the afternoon) prayer. However, the rules of prayer of fear were revealed meanwhile and thus Khalid and his men missed the chance. The Muslims avoided marching on that way and decided to follow a rugged rocky one. Here, Khalid ran back to Quraish to brief them on the latest situation.

When the Muslims reached a spot called Thaniyat Al-Marar, the Prophet’s camel stumbled and knelt down and was too stubborn to move. Muhammad (Peace be upon him) swore he would willingly accede to any plan they put forward that would glorify Allâh’s sanctities. He then reprovingly spurred his camel and it leapt up. They resumed their march and came to pitch their tents at the furthest part of Al-Hudaibiyah beside a well of scanty water. The Muslims reported thirst to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), who took an arrow out of his quiver, and placed it in the ditch. Water immediately gushed forth, and his followers drank to their fill. When the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had rested, Budail bin Warqa’ Al-Khuza‘i with some celebrities of Khuza‘ah tribe, the Prophet’s confidants, came and asked him what he had come for. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) replied that it was not for war that he had come forth: “I have no other design,” he said, “but to perform ‘Umrah (the lesser pilgrimage) in the Holy Sanctuary. Should Quraish embrace the new religion, as some people have done, they are most welcome, but if they stand in my way or debar the Muslims from pilgrimage, I will surely fight them to the last man, and Allâh’s Order must be fulfilled.” The envoy carried the message back to Quraish, who sent another one called Mikraz bin Hafs. On seeing him, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said that that was a treacherous man. He was given the same message to communicate to his people. He was followed by another ambassador known as Al-Hulais bin ‘Alqamah. He was very much impressed by the spirit of devotion that the Muslims had for the Sacred Ka‘bah. He went back to his men and warned them against debarring Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his Companions from doing honour to Allâh’s house on the peril of breaking his alliance with them. Hulais was succeeded by ‘Urwa bin Mas‘ud Ath-Thaqafi to negotiate with Muhammad (Peace be upon him). In the course of discussion he said to the Prophet (Peace be upon him): “Muhammad! Have you gathered around yourself mixed people and then brought them against your kith and kin in order to destroy them. By Allâh I think I see you deserted by these people tomorrow.” At this point Abu Bakr stood up and expressed his resentment at this imputation. Al-Mugheerah bin Shu‘bah expressed the same attitude and reprovingly forbade him from touching the Prophet’s beard. Here, Quraish’s envoy remarked indignantly and alluded to the latter’s treacherous act of killing his companions and looting them before he embraced Islam. Meanwhile, ‘Urwah, during his stay in the Muslim camp, had been closely watching the unfathomable love and profound respect that the followers of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) showed him. He returned and conveyed to Quraish his impression that those people could not forsake the Prophet (Peace be upon him) under any circumstances. He expressed his feelings in the following words: “I have been to Chosroes, Caesar and Negus in their kingdoms, but never have I seen a king among a people like Muhammad (Peace be upon him) among his Companions. If he performs his ablution, they would not let the water thereof fall on the ground; if he expectorates, they would have the mucus to rub their faces with; if he speaks, they would lower their voices. They will not abandon him for anything in any case. He, now, offers you a reasonable plan, so do what you please.”

Seeing an overwhelming tendency towards reconciliation among their chiefs, some reckless, fight-prone youngsters of Quraish devised a wicked plan that could hinder the peace treaty. They decided to infiltrate into the camp of the Muslims and produce intentional skirmishes that might trigger the fuse of war. Muhammad bin Maslamah, chief of the Muslim guards, took them captives, but in view of the far-reaching imminent results about to be achieved, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) set them free. In this context Allâh says:

“And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.” [48:24]

Time passed. Negotiations went on but with no results. Then the Prophet (Peace be upon him) desired ‘Umar to see the nobles of Quraish on his behalf. ‘Umar excused himself on account of the personal enmity of Quraish; he had, moreover, no influential relatives in the city who could shield him from danger; and he pointed to ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan, who belonged to one of the most powerful families in Makkah, as the suitable envoy. ‘Uthman went to Abu Sufyan and other chiefs and told them that the Muslims had come only to visit and pay their homage to the Sacred House, to do worship there, and that they had no intention to fight. He was also asked to call them to Islam, and give glad tidings to the believers in Makkah, women and men, that the conquest was approaching and Islam was surely to prevail because Allâh would verily establish His religion in Makkah. ‘Uthman also assured them that after the performance of ceremonies they would soon depart peacefully, but the Quraishites were adamant and not prepared to grant them the permission to visit Al-Ka‘bah. They, however, offered ‘Uthman the permission to perform the pilgrimage, if he so desired in his individual capacity, but ‘Uthman declined the offer saying: “How is it possible that I avail myself of this opportunity, when the Prophet (Peace be upon him) is denied of it?” The Muslims anxiously waited for the arrival of ‘Uthman with mingled feelings of fear and anxiety. But his arrival was considerably delayed and a foul play was suspected on the part of Quraish. The Muslims were greatly worried and took a solemn pledge at the hand of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that they would sacrifice their lives to avenge the death of their Companion and stand firmly by their master, Muhammad (Peace be upon him), under all conditions. This pledge goes by the name of Bay‘at Ar-Ridwan (a covenant of fealty). The first men to take a pledge were Abu Sinan Al-Asadi and Salamah bin Al-Akwa‘, who gave a solemn promise to die in the cause of Truth three times, at the front of the army, in the middle and in the rear. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) caught his left hand on behalf of ‘Uthman. This fealty was sworn under a tree, with ‘Umar holding the Prophet’s hand and Ma‘qil bin Yasar holding a branch of the tree up. The Noble Qur’ân has referred to this pledge in the following words:

“Indeed, Allâh was pleased with the believers when they gave their Bai‘a (pledge) to you [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] under the tree.” [48:18]

When Quraish saw the firm determination of the Muslims to shed the last drop of blood for the defence of their Faith, they came to their senses and realized that Muhammad’s followers could not be cowed down by these tactics. After some further interchange of messages they agreed to conclude a treaty of reconciliation and peace with the Muslims. The clauses of the said treaty go as follows:

  1. The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in Makkah for more than three days.
  2. They shall not come back armed but can bring with them swords only sheathed in scabbards and these shall be kept in bags.
  3. War activities shall be suspended for ten years, during which both parties will live in full security and neither will raise sword against the other.
  4. If anyone from Quraish goes over to Muhammad (Peace be upon him) without his guardian’s permission, he should be sent back to Quraish, but should any of Muhammad’s followers return to Quraish, he shall not be sent back.
  5. Whosoever to join Muhammad (Peace be upon him), or enter into treaty with him, should have the liberty to do so; and likewise whosoever wishes to join Quraish, or enter into treaty with them, should be allowed to do so.

Some dispute arose with regard to the preamble. For example, when the agreement was to be committed to writing, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, who acted as a scribe began with the words: Bismillâh ir-Rahman ir-Raheem, i.e., “In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful” but the Makkan plenipotentiary, Suhail bin ‘Amr declared that he knew nothing about Ar-Rahman and insisted upon the customary formula Bi-ismika Allâhumma, i.e., “In Your Name, O Allâh!” The Muslims grumbled with uneasiness but the Prophet (Peace be upon him) agreed. He then went on to dictate, “This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allâh has agreed to with Suhail bin ‘Amr.” Upon this Suhail again protested: “Had we acknowledged you as Prophet, we would not have debarred you from the Sacred House, nor fought against you. Write your own name and the name of your father.” The Muslims grumbled as before and refused to consent to the change. The Prophet (Peace be upon him), however, in the larger interest of Islam, attached no importance to such an insignificant detail, erased the words himself, and dictated instead: “Muhammad, the son of ‘Abdullah.” Soon after this treaty, Khuza‘a clan, a former ally of Banu Hashim, joined the ranks of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), and Banu Bakr sided with Quraish.

It was during this time while the treaty was being written that Abu Jandal, Suhail’s son, appeared on the scene. He was brutally chained and was staggering with privation and fatigue. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his Companions were moved to pity and tried to secure his release but Suhail was adamant and said: “To signify that you are faithful to your contract, an opportunity has just arrived.” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “But the treaty was not signed when your son entered the camp.” Upon this, he burst forth and said, “but the terms of the treaty were agreed upon.” It was indeed an anxious moment. On the one hand, Abu Jandal was lamenting at the top of his voice, “Am I to be returned to the polytheists that they might entice me from my religion, O Muslims!” but, on the other hand, the faithful engagement was also considered to be necessary, above all other considerations. The Prophet’s heart welled up with sympathy, but he wanted to honour his word at all costs. He consoled Abu Jandal and said, “Be patient, resign yourself to the Will of Allâh. Allâh is going to provide for you and your helpless companions relief and means of escape. We have concluded a treaty of peace with them and we have taken the pledge in the Name of Allâh. We are, therefore, under no circumstances prepared to break it.” ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab could not help giving vent to the deep-seated agony of his heart. He rose to his feet uttering words implying deep hatred and extreme indignation and requested Abu Jandal to take his sword and kill Suhail, but the son spared his father. However, in silent resignation was therefore, Abu Jandal borne away with his chains.

When the peace treaty had been concluded, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) ordered his Companions to slaughter their sacrificial animals, but they were too depressed to do that. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) gave instructions in this regard three times but with negative response. He told his wife Umm Salamah about this attitude of his Companions. She advised that he himself take the initiative, slaughter his animal and have his head shaved. Seeing that, the Muslims, with rended hearts, started to slaughter their animals and shave their heads. They even almost killed one another because of their distress. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) prayed three times for those who shaved their heads and once for those who cut their hair. A camel was sacrificed on behalf of seven men and a cow on behalf of the same number of people. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) sacrificed a camel which once belonged to Abu Jahl and which the Muslims had seized as booty at Badr, thus enraging the polytheists. During Al-Hudaibiyah campaign, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) permitted Ka‘b bin ‘Ujrah, who was in a state of Ihram (state of ritual consecration of the pilgrim) for ‘Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) to shave his head due to illness, on the condition that he will pay compensation by sacrificing a sheep, fasting for three days or feeding six needy persons. Concerning this, the following verse was revealed:

“And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either fasting (three days) or giving Sadaqa (feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep).” [2:196]

Meanwhile some believing women emigrated to Madinah and asked the Prophet (Peace be upon him) for refuge which they were granted. When their families demanded their return, he would not hand them back because the following verse was revealed:

“O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them, Allâh knows best as to their Faith, then if you know them for true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers, they are not lawful (wives) for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful (husbands) for them. But give the disbelievers that (amount of money) which they have spent [as their Mahr] to them. And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their Mahr to them. Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives …” [60:10]

The reason why the believing women were not handed back was either because they were not originally included in the terms of the treaty, which mentioned only men, or because the Qur’ân abrogated any terms dealing with women in the verse:

“O Prophet! When believing women come to you to give you the Bai‘a (Pledge), that they will not associate anything in worship with Allâh …” [60:12]

This is the verse which forbade Muslim women from marrying disbelieving men. Likewise, Muslim men were commanded to terminate their marriages to disbelieving women. In compliance with this injunction, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab divorced two wives he had married before he embraced Islam; Mu‘awiyah married the first woman, and Safwan bin Omaiyah married the second.

ALHUDAIBIYAH TREATY: SOCIO-POLITICAL IMPACT:

A series of events confirmed the profound wisdom and splendid results of the peace treaty which Allâh called “a manifest victory”. How could it be otherwise when Quraish had recognized the legitimate Muslims’ existence on the scene of political life in Arabia, and began to deal with the believers on equal terms. Quraish in the light of the articles of the treaty, had indirectly relinquished its claim to religious leadership, and admitted that they were no longer interested in people other than Quraish, and washed their hands of any sort of intervention in the religious future of the Arabian Peninsula. The Muslims did not have in mind to seize people’s property or kill them through bloody wars, nor did they ever think of pursuing any coercive approaches in their endeavours to propagate Islam, on the contrary, their sole target was to provide an atmosphere of freedom as regards ideology or religion:

“Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve.” [18:29]

The Muslims, on the other hand, had the opportunity to spread Islam over areas not then explored. When there was armistice, war was abolished, and men met and consulted together, none talked about Islam intelligently without entering it; within the two years following the conclusion of the treaty double as many entered Islam as ever before. This is supported by the fact that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) went out to Al-Hudaibiyah with only 1,400 men, but when he set out to liberate Makkah, two years later, he had 10,000 men with him.

The article of the treaty pertaining to cessation of hostilities for ten years points directly to the utter failure of political haughtiness exercised by Quraish and its allies, and functions as evidence of the collapse and impotence of the war instigator.

Qhad been obliged to lose those advantages in return for one seemingly in its favour but does not actually bear any harm against the Muslims, i.e., the article that speaks of handing over believing men who seek refuge with the Muslims without their guardians’ consent to Quraish. At first glance, it was a most distressing clause and was considered objectionable in the Muslim camp. However, in the course of events, it proved to be a great blessing. The Muslims sent back to Makkah were not likely to renounce the blessings of Islam; contrariwise, those very Muslims turned out to be centres of influence for Islam. It was impossible to think that they would become apostates or renegades. The wisdom behind this truce assumed its full dimensions in some subsequent events. After the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had reached Madinah, Abu Baseer, who had escaped from Quraish, came to him as a Muslim; Quraish sent two men demanding his return, so the Prophet (Peace be upon him) handed him over to them. On the way to Makkah, Abu Baseer managed to kill one of them, and the other one fled to Madinah with Abu Baseer in pursuit. When he reached the Prophet (Peace be upon him), he said, “Your obligation is over and Allâh has freed you from it. You duly handed me over to the men, and Allâh has rescued me from them.” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “Woe is his mother, he would have kindled a war if there had been others with him.” When he heard that, he knew that he would be handed back to them, so he fled from Madinah and went as far as Saif Al-Bahr. The other Muslims who were oppressed in Makkah began to escape to Abu Baseer. He was joined by Abu Jandal and others until a fair-sized colony was formed and soon sought revenge on Quraish and started to intercept their caravans. The pagans of Makkah finding themselves unable to control those exiled colonists, begged the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to do away with the clause which governed the extradition. They implored him by Allâh and by their ties of kinship to send for the group, saying that whoever joined the Muslims in Madinah would be safe from them. So the Prophet (Peace be upon him) sent for the group and they responded, as expected, positively.

These are the realities of the clauses of the truce treaty and as it seems they all function in favour of the nascent Islamic state. However, two points in the treaty made it distasteful to some Muslims, namely they were not given access to the Holy Sanctuary that year, and the seemingly humiliating attitude as regards reconciliation with the pagans of Quraish. ‘Umar, unable to contain himself for the distress taking full grasp of his heart, went to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and said: “Aren’t you the true Messenger of Allâh?” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) replied calmly, “Why not?” ‘Umar again spoke and asked: “Aren’t we on the path of righteousness and our enemies in the wrong?” Without showing any resentment, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) replied that it was so. On getting this reply he further urged: “Then we should not suffer any humiliation in the matter of Faith.” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was unruffled and with perfect confidence said: “I am the true Messenger of Allâh, I never disobey Him, He shall help me.” “Did you not tell us,” rejoined ‘Umar, “that we shall perform pilgrimage?” “But I have never told you,” replied the Prophet (Peace be upon him), “that we shall do so this very year.” ‘Umar was silenced. But his mind was disturbed. He went to Abu Bakr and expressed his feelings before him. Abu Bakr who had never been in doubt as regards the Prophet’s truthfulness and veracity confirmed what the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had told him. In due course the Chapter of Victory (48th) was revealed saying:

“Verily, We have given you [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] a manifest victory.” [48:1]

The Messenger of Allâh(Peace be upon him) summoned ‘Umar and imported to him the happy tidings. ‘Umar was overjoyed, and greatly regretted his former attitude. He used to spend in charity, observe fasting and prayer and free as many slaves as possible in expiation for that reckless attitude he had assumed.

The early part of the year 7 A.H. witnessed the Islamization of three prominent men of Makkah, ‘Amr bin Al-‘As, Khalid bin Al-Waleed and ‘Uthman bin Talhah. On their arrival and entrance into the fold of Islam, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “Quraish has given us its own blood.”


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